Investors enjoy certain rights under The Companies Act, 1956, Securities & Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA) and The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. These rights vary, depending upon the type of investor you are, i.e. Shareholder or debenture holder or a depositor.  Some of the important rights, under different Acts, are summarized below:



RIGHTS UNDER THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956

Section Investor Rights
39 To requisition copies of Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association
49(10) Petition to Company Law Board to allow an immediate inspection of register of investment
58(A) Petition to Company Law Board to Direct to company to make repayment of matured deposits
58AA Intimate Company Law Board about default in making repayment of matured deposits
73 To receive the share certificates on allotment and/or refund order in due time
81 To receive corporate benefits like Rights once approved.
87 To participate and vote in general meetings either personally or through proxy
111 To file an Appeal to Company Law Board in case of refusal by the company to register transfer/transmission of securities.
113 To receive the share certificates sent for transfer in due time.
117(C) To receive interest / redemption of debentures as per the terms at the time of issue.
118 To receive a copy of the debenture trust deed on request.
144 To petition Company Law Board to allow inspection of instrument creating charges.
163 To inspect register and returns maintained by the companies.
167,168 To apply to Company Law Board to call or direct the Annual General Meeting.
169 To requisite an Extraordinary General Meeting
176 To participate and vote in General Meetings either personally or through proxies.
179 To demand a poll on any resolution
186 To apply to Company Law Board to order calling of a general meeting other than AGM.
196 To inspect the minute books of the General meetings and to receive copies thereof.
219 To receive copies of the abridged annual report, the balance sheet and the profit and loss account and the auditor’s report free of cost.
235 To apply to Company Law Board to investigate the affairs of the company.
397/398/399 To apply to Company Law Board for relief in cases of oppression and / or mismanagement
434 To apply for  the winding-up of the company when it is unable to pay its debts
621,624 To proceed against the company by way of civil or criminal proceedings.



RIGHTS UNDER THE SCRA AND LISTING AGREEMENT(LA)

Section  Investor Rights
27(A) of SCRA To receive income from Collective Investment Scheme
27(B) of SCRA To receive income form Mutual Fund
Clause 1(a) of LA To receive the share certificates, on allotment or transfer as the case may be in due time
Clause 1(b) of LA, Sec.27 SCRA To receive corporate benefits like dividends ,rights, bonus, etc., once approved in general meetings
Clause 2 of LA To get shares registration, sub-division, consolidation, renewal, exchange or for other purposes.
Clause 3 of LA To get share certificates lodged for transfer, consolidation etc. within one month of lodgement with the company.
Clause 6 of LA To get transfers certified against letters of allotment.
Clause 8 of LA To get shares transferred, consolidated, split or sub divided without charge.
Clause 12 of LA To get the shares transferred in his own name after transfer.
Clause 32 of LA To get a copy of full Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account, Directors Report.



RIGHTS UNDER RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT.

Section  Investor Rights
45QA To apply to Company Law Board to direct Non banking Financial companies to repay matured deposits.

All the above mentioned rights are not absolute and are subject to the provisions of the guiding Acts or Rules or Regulations as applicable from time to time.



RIGHTS UNDER THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956
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39. COPIES OF MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES, ETC., TO BE GIVEN TO MEMBERS.

(1) A Company shall, on being so required by a member, send to him within seven days of the requirement and subject to the payment of a fee of one rupee, a copy each of the following documents as in force for the time being -

(a) the memorandum;

(b) the articles, if any;

(c) [* * *] and

(d) every other agreement and every resolution referred to in section 192, if and in so far as they have not been   embodied in the memorandum or articles.

(2) If a company makes default in complying with the requirement of this section, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable, for each offence, with fine which may extend to fifty rupees.

 

49. INVESTMENTS OF COMPANY TO BE HELD IN ITS OWN NAME.

(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-sections (2) to (5) or any other law for time being in force and subject to the provisions of sub-sections (6) to (8), -

(a) all investments made by a company on its own behalf shall be made and held by its in it own name; and

(b) where any such investments are not so held at the commencement of this Act the company shall, within a period of one year from such commencement, either cause them to be transferred to, and hold them in, its own name, or dispose of them.

(2) Where the company has a right to appoint any person or persons, or where any nominee or nominees of the company has or have been appointed, as a director or directors of any other body corporate, shares in such other body corporate to an amount not exceeding the nominal value of the qualification shares which are required to be held by a director thereof, may be registered or held by such company jointly in the names of itself and of each such person or nominee or in the name of each such person or nominee.

(3) A company may hold any shares in its subsidiary in the name or names of any nominee or nominees of the company, if and in so far as it is necessary so to do, to ensure that the number of members of the subsidiary is not reduced, where it is a public company, below seven, and where it is a private company, below two.

(4) Sub-section (1) shall not apply to investments made by a company whose principal business consists of the buying and selling of shares or securities.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a company -

(a) from depositing with a bank, being the bankers of the company, any shares or securities for the collection of any dividend or interest payable thereon; or

(aa) from depositing with, or transferring to, or holding in the name of, the State Bank of India or a Scheduled Bank, being the bankers of the company, shares or securities, in order to facilitate the transfer thereof :

Provided that if within a period of six months from the date on which the shares or securities are transferred by the company to, or are first held by the company in the name of, the State Bank of India or a Scheduled Bank as aforesaid, no transfer of such shares or securities takes place, the company shall, as soon as practicable after the expiry of that period, have the shares or securities retransferred to it from the State Bank of India or the Scheduled Bank or, as the case may be, again hold the shares or securities in its own name; or

(b) from depositing with, or transferring to, any person any shares or securities, by way of security for the repayment of any loan advanced to the company or the performance of any obligation undertaken by it.

(c) from holding investments in the name of a depository when such investments are in the form of securities held by the company as a beneficial owner.

(6) The certificate or letter of allotment relating to the shares or securities in which investments have been made by a company shall, except in the cases referred to in sub-sections (4) and (5), be in the custody of such company or with the State Bank of India or a Schedule Bank, being the bankers of the company.

(7) Where, in pursuance of sub-section (2), (3), (4) and (5), any shares or securities in which investments have been made by a company are not held by it in its own name, the company shall forthwith enter in a register maintained by it for the purpose -

(a) the nature, value, and such other particulars as may be necessary fully to identify the shares or securities in question; and

(b) the bank or person in whose name or custody the shares or securities are held.

(8) The register kept under sub-section (7) shall be open to the inspection of any member or debenture holder of the company without charge, during business hours, subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may, by its articles or in general meetings, impose, so that not less than two hours in each day are allowed for inspection.

(9) If default is made in complying with any of the requirements of sub-sections (1) to (8), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.

(10) If any inspection required under sub-section (8) is refused, the Company Law Board may, by order, direct an immediate inspection of the register.

Nothing in this sub-section shall be construed as prejudicing in any way the operation of sub-section (9).

(11) In this section, "securities" includes stock and debentures.

 

58A. DEPOSITS NOT TO BE INVITED WITHOUT ISSUING AN ADVERTISEMENT.

(1) The Central Government may, in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, prescribe the limits up to which, the manner in which and the conditions subject to which deposits may be invited or accepted by a company either from the public or from its members.

(2) No company shall invite, or allow any other person to invite or cause to be invited on its behalf, any deposit unless -

(a) such deposit is invited or is caused to be invited in accordance with the rules made under sub-section (1),

(b) an advertisement, including therein a statement showing the financial position of the company, has been issued by the company in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed, and

(c) the company is not in default in the repayment of any deposit or part thereof and any interest thereupon in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit.

(3)

(a) Every deposit accepted by a company at any time before the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1974, in accordance with the directions made by the Reserve Bank of India under Chapter IIIB of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), shall, unless renewed in accordance with clause (b), be repaid in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit.

(b) No deposit referred to in clause (a) shall be renewed by the company after the expiry of the term thereof unless the deposit is such that it could have been accepted if the rules made under sub-section (1) were in force at the time when the deposit was initially accepted by the company.

(c) Where, before the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1974, any deposit was received by a company in contravention of any direction made under Chapter IIIB of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), repayment of such deposit shall be made in full on or before the 1st day of April, 1975, and such repayment shall be without prejudice to any action that may be taken under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 for the acceptance of such deposit in contravention of such direction.

(3A) Every deposit accepted by a company after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1988, shall, unless renewed in accordance with the rules made under sub-section (1), be repaid in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit.

(4) Where any deposit is accepted by a company after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1974, in contravention of the rules made under sub-section (1), repayment of such deposit shall be made by the company within thirty days from the date of acceptance of such deposit or within such further time, not exceeding thirty days, as the Central Government may, on sufficient cause being shown by the company, allow.

(5) Where a company omits or fails to make repayment of a deposit in accordance with the provisions of clause (c) of sub-section (3), or in the case of a deposit referred to in sub-section (4), within the time specified in that sub-section, -

(a) the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than twice the amount in relation to which the repayment of the deposit has not been made, and out of the fine, if realised, an amount equal to the amount in relation to which the repayment of deposit has not been made, shall be paid by the Court, trying the offence, to the person to whom repayment of the deposit was to be made, and on such payment, the liability of the company to make repayment of the deposit shall, to the extent of the amount paid by the Court, stand discharged;

(b) every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extent to five years and shall also be liable to fine.

(6) Where a company accepts or invites, or allows or causes any other person to accept or invite on its behalf, any deposit in excess of the limits prescribed under sub-section (1) or in contravention of the manner of condition prescribed under that sub-section or in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (2), as the case may be, -

(a) the company shall be punishable, -

(i) where such contravention relates to the acceptance of any deposit, with fine which shall not be less than an amount equal to the amount of the deposit so accepted;

(ii) where such contravention relates to the invitation of any deposit, with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees but shall not be less than five thousand rupees;

(b) every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine.

(7)

(a) Nothing contained in this section shall apply to, -

(i) a banking company, or

(ii) such other company as the Central Government may, after consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, specify in this behalf.

(b) Except the provisions relating to advertisement contained in clause (b) of sub-section (2), nothing in this section shall apply to such classes of financial companies as the Central Government may, after consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, specify in this behalf.

(8) The Central Government may, if it considers it necessary for avoiding any hardship or for any other just and sufficient reason, by order, issued either prospectively or retrospectively from a date not earlier than the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1974 (41 of 1974), grant extension of time to a company or class of companies to comply with, or exempt any company or class of companies from, all or any of the provisions of this section either generally or for any specified period subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order :

Provided that no order under this sub-section shall be issued in relation to a class of companies except after consultation with the Reserve Bank of India.

(9) Where a company has failed to repay any deposit or part thereof in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit, the Company Law Board may, if it is satisfied, either on its own motion or on the application of the depositor, that it is necessary so to do to safeguard the interests of the company, the depositors or in the public interest, direct, by order, the company to make repayment of such deposit or part thereof forthwith or within such time and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order:

Provided that the Company Law Board may, before making any order under this sub-section, give a reasonable opportunity of being heard to the company and the other persons interested in the matter.

(10) Whoever fails to comply with any order made by the Company Law Board under sub-section (9) shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to a fine of not less than rupees fifty for every day during which such non-compliance continues.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, "deposit means any deposit of money with, and includes any amount borrowed by, a company but shall not include such categories of amount as may be prescribed in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India.

(11) A depositor may, at any time make a nomination and the provisions of sections 109A and 109B shall, as far as may be, apply to an advertisement referred to in section 58A.

 

58AA. Small depositors

(1) Every company, which accepts deposits from small depositors, shall intimate to the Company Law Board any default made by it in repayment of any such deposits or part thereof or any interest thereupon.

(2) The intimation under sub-section (1) shall,—

(a) be given within sixty days from the date of default;

(b) include particulars in respect of the names and addresses of each small depositor, the principal sum of deposits due to them and interest accrued thereupon.

Explanation.— For removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the intimation under this section shall be given on monthly basis.

(3) Where a company has made a default in repayment of any deposit or part thereof or any interest thereupon to a small depositor, the Company Law Board, on receipt of intimation under sub-section (1) shall,—

(a) exercise, on its own motion, powers conferred upon it by sub-section (9) of section 58A;

(b) pass an appropriate order within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of intimation under sub-section (1):

Provided that the Board may pass order after expiry of the period of thirty days, after giving the small depositors an opportunity of being heard:

Provided further that it shall not be necessary for a small depositor to be present at the hearing of the proceeding under this sub-section.

(4) No company shall, at any time, accept further deposits from small depositors, unless each small depositor, whose deposit has matured, had been paid the amount of the deposit and the interest accrued thereupon:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to—

(a) any deposit which has been renewed by the small depositor voluntarily; or

(b) any deposit, whose repayment has become impracticable due to the death of the small depositor or whose repayment has been stayed by a competent court or authority.

(5) Every company, which has on any occasion made a default in the repayment of a deposit or part thereof or any interest thereupon to a small depositor, shall state, in every future advertisement and application form inviting deposits from the public, the total number of small depositors and amount due to them in respect of which such default has been made.

(6) Where any interest accrued on deposits of the small depositors has been waived, the fact of such waiver shall be mentioned by the company in every advertisement and application form inviting deposits issued after such waiver.

(7) Where a company had accepted deposits from small depositors and subsequent to such acceptance of deposits, obtains funds by taking a loan for the purposes of its working capital from any bank, it shall first utilise the funds so obtained for the repayment of any deposit or any part thereof or any interest thereupon to the small depositor before applying such funds for any other purpose.

(8) Every application form, issued by a company to a small depositor for accepting deposits from him, shall contain a statement to the effect that the applicant had been apprised of—

(a) every past default by the company in the repayment of deposit or interest thereon, if any, such default has occurred; and

(b) the waiver of interest under sub-section (6), if any, and reasons therefor.

(9) Whoever knowingly fails to comply with the provisions of this section or comply with any order of the Company Law Board shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine for not less than five hundred rupees for every day during which such non-compliance continues.

(10) If a company or any other person contravenes any provision of this section, every person, who at the time the contravention was committed, was a director of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

(11) The provisions of section 58A shall, as far as may be, apply to the deposits made by a small depositor under this section.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, "a small depositor" means a depositor who has deposited in a financial year a sum not exceeding twenty thousand rupees in a company and includes his successors, nominees and legal representatives.

73. ALLOTMENT OF SHARES AND DEBENTURES TO BE DEALT IN ON STOCK EXCHANGE.

(1) Every company intending to offer shares or debentures to the public for subscription by the issue of a prospectus shall, before such issue, make an application to one or more recognized stock exchanges for permission for the shares or debentures intending to be so offered to be dealt with in the stock exchange or each such stock exchange.

(1A) Where a prospectus, whether issued generally or not, states that an application under sub-section (1) has been made for permission for the shares or debentures offered thereby to be dealt in one or more recognized stock exchanges, such prospectus shall state the name of the stock exchange or, as the case may be, each such stock exchange, and any allotment made on an application in pursuance of such prospectus shall, whenever made, be void, if the permission has not been granted by the stock exchange or each such stock exchange, as the case may be, before the expiry of ten weeks from the date of the closing of the subscription lists :

Provided that where an appeal against the decision of any recognized stock exchange refusing permission for the shares or debentures to be dealt in on that stock exchange has been preferred under section 22 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), such allotment shall not be void until the dismissal of the appeal.

(2) Where the permission has not been applied under sub-section (1), or such permission having been applied for, has not been granted as aforesaid, the company shall forthwith repay without interest all moneys received from applicants in pursuance of the prospectus, and, if any such money is not repaid within eight days after the company becomes liable to repay it, the company and every director of the company who is an officer in default shall, on and from the expiry of the eighth day, be jointly and severally liable to repay that money with interest at such rate, not less than four percent and not more than fifteen per cent. as may be prescribed, having regard to the length of the period of delay in making the repayment of such money.

(2A) Where permission has been granted by the recognised stock exchange or stock exchanges for dealing in any shares or debentures in such stock exchange or each such stock exchange and the moneys received from applicants for shares or debentures are in excess of the aggregate of the application moneys relating to the shares or debentures in respect of which allotments have been made, the company shall repay the moneys to the extent of such excess forthwith without interest, and if such money is not repaid within eight days, from the day the company becomes liable to pay it, the company and every director of the company who is an officer in default shall, on and from the expiry of the eighth day, be jointly and severally liable to repay that money with interest at such rate, not less than four per cent. and not more than fifteen per cent. as may be prescribed having regard to the length of the period of delay in making the repayment of such money.

(2B) If default is made in complying with the provisions of sub-section (2A), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees, and where repayment is not made within six months from the expiry of the eighth day, also with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year.

(3) All moneys received as aforesaid shall be kept in a separate bank account maintained with a Scheduled Bank until the permission has been granted, or where an appeal has been preferred against the refusal to grant such permission, until the disposal of the appeal, and the money standing in such separate account shall, where the permission has not been applied for as aforesaid or has not been granted, be repaid within the time and in the manner specified in sub-section (2), and if default is made in complying with this sub-section, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine, which may extend to five thousand rupees.

(3A) Moneys standing to the credit of the separate bank account referred to in sub-section (3) shall not be utilised for any purpose other than the following purposes, namely :-

(a) adjustment against allotment of shares, where the shares have been permitted to be dealt in on the stock exchange or each stock exchange specified in the prospectus; or

(b) repayment of moneys received from applicants in pursuance of the prospectus, where shares have not been permitted to be dealt in on the stock exchanger or each stock exchange specified in the prospectus, as the case may be, or, where the company is for any other reason unable to make the allotment of share.

(4) Any condition purporting to require or bind any applicant for shares or debentures to waive compliance with any of the requirements of this section shall be void.

(5) For the purposes of this section, it shall be deemed that permission has not been granted if the application for permission, where made, has not been disposed of within the time specified in sub-section (1).

(6) This section shall have effect -

(a) in relation to any shares or debentures agreed to be taken by a person underwriting an offer thereof by a prospectus, as if he had applied therefor in pursuance of the prospectus; and

(b) in relation to a prospectus offering shares for sale, with the following modifications, namely, -

(i) references to sale shall be substituted for references to allotment;

(ii) the persons by whom the offer is made, and not the company, shall be liable under sub-section (2) to repay money received from applicants, and references to the company's liability under that sub-section shall be construed accordingly; and

(iii) for the reference in sub-section (3) to the company and every officer of the company who is in default, there shall be substituted a reference to any person by or through whom the offer is made and who is knowingly guilty of, or wilfully authorises or permits, the default.

(7) No prospectus shall state that application has been made for permission for the shares or debentures offered thereby to be dealt in on any stock exchange, unless it is a recognised stock exchange.

 

81. FURTHER ISSUE OF CAPITAL.

(1) Where at any time after the expiry of two years from the formation of a company or at any time after the expiry of one year from the allotment of shares in that company made for the first time after its formation, whichever is earlier, it is proposed to increase the subscribed capital of the company by allotment of further shares, then, -

(a) such further shares shall be offered to the persons who, at the date of the offer, are holders of the equity shares of the company, in proportion, as nearly as circumstances admit, to the capital paid-up on those shares at that date;

(b) the offer aforesaid shall be made by notice specifying the number of shares offered and limiting a time not being less than fifteen days from the date of the offer within which the offer, if not accepted, will be deemed to have been declined.

(c) unless the articles of the company otherwise provide, the offer aforesaid shall be deemed to include a right exercisable by the person concerned to renounce the shares offered to him or any of them in favor of any other person; and the notice referred to in clause (b) shall contain a statement of this right;

(d) after the expiry of the time specified in the notice aforesaid, or on receipt of earlier intimation from the person to whom such notice is given that he declines to accept the shares offered, the Board of directors may dispose of them in such manner as they think most beneficial to the company.

Explanation : In this sub-section, "equity share capital" and "equity shares" have the same meaning as in section 85.

(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the further shares aforesaid may be offered to any persons [whether or not those persons include the persons referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1)] in any manner whatsoever -

(a) if a special resolution to that effect is passed by the company in general meeting, or

(b) where no such special resolution is passed, if the votes cast (whether on a show of hands, or on a poll, as the case may be) in favour of the proposal contained in the resolution moved in that general meeting (including the casting vote, if any, of the chairman) by members who, being entitled so to do, vote in person, or where proxies are allowed, by proxy, exceed the votes, if any, cast against the proposal by members so entitled and voting and the Central Government is satisfied, on an application made by the Board of directors in this behalf, that the proposal is most beneficial to the company.

(2) Nothing in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed -

(a) to extend the time within which the offer should be accepted, or

(b) to authorise any person to exercise the right of renunciation for a second time, on the ground that the person in whose favour the renunciation was first made has declined to take the shares comprised in the renunciation.

(3) Nothing in this section shall apply -

(a) to a private company; or

(b) to the increase of the subscribed capital of a public company caused by the exercise of an option attached to debentures issued or loans raised by the company -

(i) to convert such debentures or loans into shares in the company, or

(ii) to subscribe for shares in the company :

Provided that the terms of issue of such debentures or the terms of such loans include a term providing for such option and such term :

(a) either has been approved by the Central Government before the issue of debentures or the raising of the loans, or is in conformity with the rules, if any, made by that Government in this behalf; and

(b) in the case of debentures or loans other than debentures issued to, or loans obtained from, the Government or any institution specified by the Central Government in this behalf, has also been approved by a special resolution passed by the company in general meeting before the issue of the debentures or the raising of the loans.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this section, where any debentures have been issued to, or loans have been obtained from, the Government by a company, whether such debentures have been issued or loans have been obtained before or after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1963, the Central Government may, if in its opinion it is necessary in the public interest so to do, by order, direct that such debentures or loans or any part thereof shall be converted into shares in the company on such terms and conditions as appear to that Government to be reasonable in the circumstances of the case, even if the terms of issue of such debentures or the terms of such loans do not include a term providing for an option for such conversion.

(5) In determining the terms and conditions of such conversion, the Central Government shall have due regard to the following circumstance, that is to say, the financial position of the company, the terms of issue of the debentures or the terms of the loans, as the case may be, the rate of interest payable on the debentures or the loans, the capital of the company, its loan liabilities, its reserves, its profits during the preceding five years and the current market price of the shares in the company.

(6) A copy of every order proposed to be issued by the Central Government under sub-section (4) shall be laid in draft before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions.

(7) If the terms and conditions of such conversion are not acceptable to the company, the company may, within thirty days from the date of communication to it of such order or within such further time as may be granted by the Court, prefer an appeal to the Court in regard to such terms and conditions and the decision of the Court on such appeal and, subject only to such decision, the order of the Central Government under sub-section (4) shall be final and conclusive.

87. VOTING RIGHTS.

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 89 and sub-section (2) of section 92, -

(a) every member of a company limited by shares and holding any equity share capital therein shall have a right to vote, in respect of such capital, on every resolution placed before the company; and

(b) his voting right on a pool shall be in proportion to his share of the paid-up equity capital of the company.

(2)(a) Subject as aforesaid and save as provided in clause (b) of this sub-section, every member of a company limited by shares and holding any preference share capital therein shall, in respect of such capital, have a right to vote only on resolutions placed before the company which directly affect the rights attached to his preference shares.

Explanation : Any resolution for winding up the company or for the repayment or reduction of its share capital shall be deemed directly to affect the rights attached to preference shares within the meaning of this clause.

(b) Subject as aforesaid, every member of a company limited by shares and holding any preference share capital therein shall, in respect of such capital, be entitled to vote on every resolution placed before the company at any meeting, if the dividend due on such capital or any part of such dividend has remained unpaid -

(i) in the case of cumulative preference shares, in respect of an aggregate period of not less than two years preceding the date of commencement of the meeting; and

(ii) in the case of non-cumulative preference shares, either in respect of a period of not less than two years ending with the expiry of the financial year immediately preceding the commencement of the meeting or in respect of an aggregate period of not less than three years comprised in the six years ending with the expiry of the financial year aforesaid.

Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, dividend shall be deemed to be due on preference shares in respect of any period, whether a dividend has been declared by the company on such shares for such period or not. -

(a) on the last day specified for the payment of such dividend for such period, in the articles or other instrument executed by the company in that behalf; or

(b) in case no day is so specified, on the day immediately following such period.

(c) Where the holder of any preference share has a right to vote on any resolution in accordance with the provisions of this sub-sections, his voting right on a poll, as the holder of such share, shall, subject to the provisions of section 89 and sub-section (2) of section 92, be in the same proportion as the capital paid-up in respect of the preference share bears to the total paid-up equity capital of the company

117C. Liability of company to create security and debenture redemption reserve

(1) Where a company issues debentures after the commencement of this Act, it shall create a debenture redemption reserve for the redemption of such debentures, to which adequate amounts shall be credited, from out of its profits every year until such debentures are redeemed.

(2) The amounts credited to the debenture redemption reserve shall not be utilised by the company except for the purpose aforesaid.

(3) The company referred to in sub-section (1) shall pay interest and redeem the debentures in accordance with the terms and conditions of their issue.

(4) Where a company fails to redeem the debentures on the date of maturity, the Company Law Board may, on the application of any or all the holders of debentures shall, after hearing the parties concerned, direct, by order, the company to redeem the debentures forthwith by the payment of principal and interest due thereon.

(5) If default is made in complying with the order of the Company Law Board under sub-section (4), every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to a fine of not less than five hundred rupees for every day during which such default continues

 

113. LIMITATION OF TIME FOR ISSUE OF CERTIFICATES .

(1) Every company, unless prohibited by any provision of law or of any order of any court, tribunal or other authority, shall, within three months after the allotment of any of its shares, debentures or debenture stock, and within two months after the application for the registration of the transfer of any such shares, debentures or debenture stock, deliver, in accordance with the procedure laid down in section 53, the certificate of all shares, debentures and certificates of debenture stocks allotted or transferred :

Provided that the Company Law Board may, on an application been made to it in this behalf by the company, extend any of the periods within which the certificates of all debentures and debenture stocks allotted or transferred shall be delivered under this sub-section, to a further period not exceeding nine months, if it is satisfied that it is not possible for the company to deliver such certificates within the said periods.

The _expression "transfer", for the purposes of this sub-section, means a transfer duly stamped and otherwise valid, and does not include any transfer which the company is for any reason entitled to refuse to register and does not register.

(2) If default is made in complying with sub-section (1), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day during which the default continues.

(3) If any company on which a notice has been served requiring it to make good any default in complying with the provisions of sub-section (1), fails to make good the default within ten days after the service of the notice, the Company Law Board may, on the application of the person entitled to have the certificates or the debentures delivered to him, make an order directing the company and any officer of the company to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order; and any such order may provide that all costs of and incidental to the application shall be borne by the company or by any officer of the company responsible for the default.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where the securities are dealt with in a depository, the company shall intimate the details of allotment of securities to depository immediately on allotment of such securities.

118. RIGHT TO OBTAIN COPIES OF AND INSPECT TRUST DEED.

(1) A copy of any trust deed for securing any issue of debentures shall be forwarded to the holder of any such debentures or any member of the company, at his request and within seven days of the making thereof, on payment -

(a) in the case of a printed trust deed, of such sum as may be prescribed; and

(b) in the case of a trust deed which has not been printed, of such sum as may be prescribed for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.

(2) If a copy is refused, or is not forwarded within the time specified in sub-section (1), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable, for each offence, with fine which may extend to fifty rupees and with a further fine which may extend to twenty rupees for every day during which the offence continues.

(3) The Company Law Board may also, by order, direct that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it.

(4) The trust deed referred to in sub-section (1) shall also be open to inspection by any member or debenture holder of the company in the same manner, to the same extent, and on payment of the same fees, as if it were the register of members of the company.

 

144. RIGHT TO INSPECT COPIES OF INSTRUMENTS CREATING CHARGES AND COMPANY'S REGISTER OF CHARGES.

(1) The copies of instruments creating charges kept in pursuance of section 136, and the register of charges kept in pursuance of section 143, shall be open during business hours (but subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company in general meeting may impose, so that not less than two hours in each day are allowed for inspection) to the inspection of any creditor or member of the company without fee, at the registered office of the company.

(2) The register of charges kept in pursuance of section 143 shall also be open, during business hours but subject to the reasonable restrictions aforesaid, to the inspection of any other person on payment of a fee of such some as may be prescribed for each inspection at the registered office of the company.

(3) If inspection of the said copies or register is refused, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty rupees and with a further fine which may extend to twenty rupees for every day during which the refusal continues.

(4) The Company Law Board may also by order compel an immediate inspection of the said copies or register.

 

163. Place of keeping, and inspection of registers and returns

(1) The register of members commencing from the date of the registration of the company, the index of members, the register and index of debenture holders, and copies of all annual returns prepared under sections 159 and 160, together with the copies of certificates and documents required to be annexed thereto under sections 160 and 161, shall be kept at the registered office of the company:

[Provided that such registers, indexes, returns and copies of certificates and documents or any or more of them may, instead of being dept at the registered office of the company, be kept at any other place within the city, town or village in which the registered office is situate, if-

(i) such other place has been approved for this purpose by a special resolution passed by the company in general meeting, [and]

[(ii) ***]

(iii) the Registrar has been given in advance a copy of the proposed special resolution.]

[(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) the Central Government may make rules for the preservation and for the disposal whether by destruction or otherwise, of the registers, indexes, returns and copies of certificates and other documents referred to in sub-section (1).]

(2) The registers, indexes, returns, and copies of certificates and other documents referred to in sub-section (1) shall, except when the register of members or debenture holders is closed under the provisions of this Act, be open during business hours (subject to such reasonable restrictions, as the company may impose, so that not less than two hours in each day are allowed for inspection) to the inspection-

(a) of any member or debenture holder, without fee; and

(b) of any other person, on payment of [such sum as may be prescribed] for each inspection.

(3) Any such member, debenture holder or other person may-

(a) make extracts from any register, index, or copy referred to in sub-section (1) without fee or additional fee, as the case may be, or

(b) require a copy of any such register, index, or copy or of any part thereof, on payment of [such sum as may be prescribed] for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.

(4) The company shall cause any copy required by any person under clause (b) of sub-section (3) to be sent to that person within a period of ten days, exclusive of non-working days, commencing on the day next after the day on which the requirement is received by the company.

(5) If any inspection, or the making of any extract required under this section, is refused, or if any copy required under this section is not sent within the period specified in sub-section (4), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable, in respect of each offence, with fine which may extend to [five hundred rupees] for every day during which the refusal or default continues.

(6) The [Companies Law Board] may also, by order, compel an immediate inspection of the document, or direct that the extract required shall forthwith be allowed to be taken by the person requiring it, or that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it, as the case may be.

 

167. POWER OF COMPANY LAW BOARD TO CALL ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING.

(1) If default is made in holding an annual general meeting in accordance with section 166, the Company Law Board may, notwithstanding anything in this Act or in the articles of the company, on the application of any member of the company, call, or direct the calling of, a general meeting of the company and give such ancillary or consequential directions as the Company Law Board thinks expedient in relation to the calling, holding and conducting of the meeting.

Explanation : The directions that may be given under this sub-section may include a direction that one member of the company present in person or by proxy shall be deemed to constitute a meeting.

(2) A general meeting held in pursuance of sub-section (1) shall, subject to any directions of the Company Law Board, be deemed to be an annual general meeting of the company.

 

168. PENALTY FOR DEFAULT IN COMPLYING WITH SECTION 166 OR 167.

If default is made in holding a meeting of the company in accordance with section 166, or in complying with any directions of the Central Government under sub-section (1) of section 167, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and in the case of a continuing default, with a further fine which may extend to two hundred and fifty rupees for every day after the first during which such default continues.

 

169. CALLING OF EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL MEETING ON REQUISITION.

(1) The Board of directors of a company shall, on the requisition of such number of members of the company as is specified in sub-section (4), forthwith proceed duly to call an extraordinary general meeting of the company.

(2) The requisition shall set out the matters for the consideration of which the meeting is to be called, shall be signed by the requisitionists, and shall be deposited at the registered office of the company.

(3) The requisition may consist of several documents in like form, each signed by one or more requisitionists.

(4) The number of members entitled to requisition a meeting in regard to any matter shall be -

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, such number of them as hold at the date of the deposit of the requisition, not less than one-tenth of such of the paid-up capital of the company as at that date carries the right of voting in regard to that matter;

(b) in the case of a company not having a share capital, such number of them as have at the date of deposit of the requisition not less than one-tenth of the total voting power of all the members having at the said date a right to vote in regard to that matter.

(5) Where two or more distinct matters are specified in the requisition, the provisions of sub-section (4) shall apply separately in regard to each such matter; and the requisition shall accordingly be valid only in respect of those matters in regard to which the condition specified in that sub-section is fulfilled.

(6) If the Board does not, within twenty-one days from the date of the deposit of a valid requisition in regard to any matters, proceed duly to call a meeting for the consideration of those matters on a day not later than forty-five days from the date of the deposit of the requisition, the meeting may be called -

(a) by the requisitionists themselves;

(b) in the case of a company having a share capital, by such of the requisitionists as represent either a majority in value of the paid-up share capital held by all of them or not less than one-tenth of such of the paid-up share capital of the company as is referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (4), whichever is less; or

(c) in the case of a company not having a share capital, by such of the requisitionists as represent not less than one-tenth of the total voting power of all the members of the company referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (4).

Explanation : For the purposes of this sub-section, the Board shall, in the case of a meeting at which a resolution is to be proposed as a special resolution, be deemed not to have duly convened the meeting if they do not give such notice thereof as is required by sub-section (2) of section 189.

(7) A meeting called under sub-section (6) by the requisitionists or any of them -

(a) shall be called in the same manner, as nearly as possible, as that in which meetings are to be called by the Board; but

(b) shall not be held after the expiration of three months from the date of the deposit of the requisition.

Explanation : Nothing in clause (b) shall be deemed to prevent a meeting duly commenced before the expiry of the period of three months aforesaid, from adjourning to some day after the expiry of that period.

(8) Where two or more persons hold any shares or interest in a company jointly, a requisition, or a notice calling a meeting, signed by one or some only of them shall, for the purposes of this section, have the same force and effect as if it had been signed by all of them.

(9) Any reasonable expenses incurred by the requisitionists by reason of the failure of the Board duly to call a meeting shall be repaid to the requisitionists by the company; and any sum so repaid shall be retained by the company out of any sums due or to become due from the company by way of fees or other remuneration for their services to such of the directors as were in default.

 

176. PROXIES.

(1) Any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company shall be entitled to appoint another person (whether a member or not) as his proxy to attend and vote instead of himself; but a proxy so appointed shall not have any right to speak at the meeting :

Provided that, unless the articles otherwise provide -

(a) this sub-section shall not apply in the case of a company not having a share capital;

(b) a member of a private company shall not be entitled to appoint more than one proxy to attend on the same occasion; and

(c) a proxy shall not be entitled to vote except on a poll.

(2) In every notice calling a meeting of a company which has a share capital, or the articles of which provide for voting by proxy at the meeting, there shall appear with reasonable prominence a statement that a member entitled to attend and vote is entitled to appoint a proxy, or, where that is allowed, one or more proxies, to attend and vote instead of himself, and that a proxy need not be a member.

If default is made in complying with this sub-section as respects any meeting, every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

(3) Any provision contained in the articles of a public company or of a private company which is a subsidiary of a public company, which specifies or requires a longer period than forty-eight hours before a meeting of the company, for depositing with the company or any other person any instrument appointing a proxy or any other document necessary to show the validity or otherwise relating to the appointment of a proxy in order that the appointment may be effective at such meeting, shall have effect as if a period of forty-eight hours had been specified in or required by such provision for such deposit.

(4) If for the purpose of any meeting of a company, invitations to appoint as proxy a person or one of a number of persons specified in the invitations are issued at the company's expense to any member entitled to have a notice of the meeting sent to him and to vote thereat by proxy, every officer of the company who knowingly issues the invitations as aforesaid or willfully authoresses or permits their issue shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees :

Provided that an officer shall not be punishable under this sub-section by reason only of the issue to a member at his request in writing of a form of appointment naming the proxy, or of a list of persons willing to act as proxies, if the form or list is available on request in writing to every member entitled to vote at the meeting by proxy.

(5) The instrument appointing a proxy shall -

(a) be in writing; and

(b) be signed by the appointer or his attorney duly authorised in writing or, if the appointer is a body corporate, be under its seal or be signed by an officer or an attorney duly authorised by it.

(6) An instrument appointing a proxy, if in any of the forms set out in Schedule IX, shall not be questioned on the ground that it fails to comply with any special requirements specified for such instrument by the articles.

(7) Every member entitled to vote at a meeting of the company, or on any resolution to be moved thereat, shall be entitled during the period beginning twenty-four hours before the time fixed for the commencement of the meeting and ending with the conclusion of the meeting, to inspect the proxies lodged, at any time during the business hours of the company, provided not less than three days' notice in writing of the intention so to inspect is given to the company.

 

179. DEMAND FOR POLL.

(1) Before or on the declaration of the result of the voting on any resolution on a show of hands, a poll may be ordered to be taken by the chairman of the meeting of his own motion, and shall be ordered to be taken by him on a demand made in that behalf by the persons or person specified below, that is to say, -

(a) in the case of a public company having a share capital, by any member or members present in person or by proxy and holding shares in the company -

(i) which confer a power to vote on the resolution not being less than one-tenth of the total voting power in respect of the resolution, or

(ii) on which an aggregate sum of not less than fifty thousand rupees has been paid up,

(b) in the case of a private company having a share capital, by one member having the right to vote on the resolution and present in person or by proxy if not more than seven such members are personally present, and by two such members present in person or by proxy, if more than seven such members are personally present,

(c) in the case of any other company, by any member or members present in person or by proxy and having not less than one-tenth of the total voting power in respect of the resolution.

(2) The demand for a poll may be withdrawn at any time by the person or persons who made the demand.

 

186. POWER OF COMPANY LAW BOARD TO ORDER MEETING TO BE CALLED.

(1) If for any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of a company, other than an annual general meeting, in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, or to hold or conduct the meeting of the company in the manner prescribed by this Act or the articles, the Company Law Board may, either of its own motion or on the application of any director of the company, or of any member of the company who would be entitled to vote at the meeting, -

(a) order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Company Law Board thinks fit; and

(b) give such ancillary or consequential directions as the Company Law Board thinks expedient, including directions modifying or supplementing in relation to the calling, holding and conducting of the meeting, the operation of the provisions of this Act and of the company's articles.

Explanation : The directions that may be given under this sub-section may include a direction that one member of the company present in person or by proxy shall be deemed to constitute a meeting.

(2) Any meeting called, held and conducted in accordance with any such order shall, for all purposes, be deemed to be a meeting of the company duly called, held and conducted.

 

196. INSPECTION OF MINUTE BOOKS OF GENERAL MEETINGS.

(1) The books containing the minutes of the proceedings of any general meeting of a company held on or after the 15th day of January, 1937, shall -

(a) be kept at the registered office of the company, and

(b) be open, during business hours, to the inspection of any member without charge, subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may, by its articles or in general meeting impose, so however that not less than two hours in each day are allowed for inspection.

(2) Any member shall be entitled to be furnished, within seven days after he has made a request in that behalf to the company, with a copy of any minutes referred to in sub-section (1), on payment of such sum as may be prescribed for every one hundred words or fractional part thereof required to be copied.

(3) If any inspection required under sub-section (1) is refused, or if any copy required under sub-section (2) is not furnished within the time specified therein, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees in respect of each offence.

(4) In the case of any such refusal or default, the Company Law Board may, by order, compel an immediate inspection of the minute books, or direct that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it.

 

219. RIGHT OF MEMBER TO COPIES OF BALANCE SHEET AND AUDITORS' REPORT.

(1) A copy of every balance sheet (including the profit and loss account, the auditors' report and every other document required by law to be annexed or attached, as the case may be, to the balance sheet) which is to be laid before a company in general meeting shall, not less than twenty-one days before the date of the meeting, be sent to every member of the company, to every trustee for the holders of any debentures issued by the company, whether such member or trustee is or is not entitled to have notices of general meetings of the company sent to him, and to all persons other than such members or trustees, being persons so entitled :

Provided that -

(a) in the case of a company not having a share capital, this sub-section shall not require the sending of a copy of the documents aforesaid to a member, or holder of debentures, of the company who is not entitled to have notices of general meetings of the company sent to him;

(b) this sub-section shall not require a copy of the documents aforesaid to be sent -

(i) to a member, or holder of debentures, of the company, who is not entitled to have notices of general meetings of the company sent to him and of whose address the company is unaware;

(ii) to more than one of the joint holders of any shares or debentures none of whom is entitled to have such notices sent to him; 

(iii) in the case of joint holders of any shares or debentures some of whom are and some of whom are not entitled to have such notices sent to them, to those who are not so entitled;

(iv) in the case of a company whose shares are listed on a recognised stock exchange, if the copies of the documents aforesaid are made available for inspection at its registered officer during working hours for a period of twenty-one days before the date of the meeting and a statement containing the salient features of such documents in the prescribed form or copies of the documents aforesaid, as the company may deem fit, is sent to every member of the company and to every trustee for the holders of any debentures issued by the company not less than twenty-one days before the date of the meeting;

(c) if the copies of the documents aforesaid are sent less than twenty-one days before the date of the meeting, they shall, notwithstanding that fact, be deemed to have been duly sent if it is so agreed by all the members entitled to vote at the meeting.

(2) Any member or holder of debentures of a company and any person from whom the company has accepted a sum of money by way of deposit shall, on demand, be entitled to be furnished free of cost, with a copy of the last balance sheet of the company and of every document required by law to be annexed or attached thereto, including the profit and loss account and the auditors' report.

(3) If default is made in complying with sub-section (1), the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

(4) If, when any person makes a demand for a copy of any document with which he is entitled to be furnished by virtue of sub-section (2), default is made in complying with the demand within seven days after the making thereof, the company, and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, unless it is proved that that person had already made a demand for and been furnished with a copy of the document.

The Company Law Board may also, by order, direct that the copy demanded shall forthwith be furnished to the person concerned.

(5) Sub-sections (1) to (4) shall not apply in relation to a balance sheet of a private company laid before it before the commencement of this Act; and in such a case the right of any person to have sent to him or to be furnished with a copy of the balance sheet, and the liability of the company in respect of a failure to satisfy that right, shall be the same as they would have been if this Act had not been passed.

 

235. INVESTIGATION OF AFFAIRS OF A COMPANY.

(1) The Central Government may, where a report has been made by the Registrar under sub-section (6) of section 234, or under sub-section (7) of that section, read with sub-section (6) thereof, appoint one or more competent persons as inspectors to investigate the affairs of any company and to report thereon in such manner as the Central Government may direct, -

(2) Where -

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, an application has been received from not less than two hundred members or from members holding not less than one-tenth of the total voting power therein; and

(b) in the case of a company not having a share capital, an application has been received from not less than one-fifth of the persons on the company's register of members,

the Company Law Board may, after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, by order, declare that the affairs of the company ought to be investigated by an inspector or inspectors, and on such a declaration being made, the Central Government shall appoint one or more competent persons as inspectors to investigate the affairs of the company and to report thereon in such manner as the Central Government may direct.

 

 

397. APPLICATION TO [COMPANY LAW BOARD] FOR RELIEF IN CASES OF OPPRESSION

(1) Any member of a company who complain that the affairs of the company  [are being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest or] in a manner oppressive to any member or members (including any one or more of themselves) may apply to the 151[Company Law Board] for an order under this section, provided such members have a right so to apply in virtue of section 399.

(2) If, on any application under sub-section (1) the [Company Law Board] is of opinion-

(a) that the company's affairs [are being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest or] in a manner oppressive to any member or members; and

(b) that to wind up the company would unfairly prejudice such member or members, but that otherwise the facts would justify the making of a winding up order on the ground that it was just and equitable that the company should be wound up;

the [Company Law Board] may, with a view to bringing to an end the matters complained of, make such order as it thinks fit.

 

398. APPLICATION TO [COMPANY LAW BOARD] FOR RELIEF IN CASES OF MISMANAGEMENT

(1) Any members of a company who complain:

(a) that the affairs of the company [are being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest or] in a manner prejudicial to the interests of the company; or

(b) that a material change (not being a change brought about by, or in the interests of, any creditors (including debenture holders, or any class of shareholders, of the company has taken place in the management or control of the company, whether by an alteration in its Board of directors, [or manager], or in the ownership of the company's shares, or if it has no share capital, in its membership, or in any other manner whatsoever, and that by reason of such change, it is likely that the affairs of the company [will be conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest or] in a manner prejudicial to the interests of the company;

may apply to the [Company Law Board] for an order under this section, provided such members have a right so to apply in virtue of section 399.

(2) If, on any application under sub-section (1), the [Company Law Board] is of opinion that the affairs of the company are being conducted as aforesaid or that by reason of any material change as aforesaid in the management or control of the company, it is likely that the affairs of the company will be conducted as aforesaid, the [Company Law Board] may, with a view to bringing to an end or preventing the matters complained of or apprehended, make such order as it thinks fit.

 

399. RIGHT TO APPLY UNDER SECTIONS 397 AND 398

(1) The following members of a company shall have the right to apply under section 397 or 398:-

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, not less than one hundred members of the company or not less than one-tenth of the total number of its members, whichever is less, or any member or members holding not less than one-tenth of the issued share capital of the company, provided that the applicant or applicants have paid all calls and other sums due on their shares;

(b) in the case of a company not having a share capital, not less than one-fifth of the total number of its members.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), where any share or shares are held by two or more persons jointly, they shall be counted only as one member.

(3) Where any members of a company are entitled to make an application in virtue of sub-section (1), any one or more of them having obtained the consent in writing of the rest, may make the application on behalf and for the benefit of all of them.

(4) The Central Government may, if in its opinion circumstances exist which make it just and equitable so to do, authorise any member or members of the company to apply to the [Company Law Board] under section 397 or 398, notwithstanding that the requirements of clause (a) or clause (b), as the case may be, of sub-section (1) are not fulfilled.

(5) The Central Government may, before authorising any member or members as aforesaid, require such member or members to give security for such amount as the Central Government may deem reasonable, for the payment of any costs which the [Company Law Board] dealing with the application may order such member or members to pay to any other person or persons who are parties to the application.

 

434. COMPANY WHEN DEEMED UNABLE TO PAY ITS DEBTS

(1) A company shall be deemed to be unable to pay its debts-

(a) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted in a sum exceeding five hundred rupees then due, has served on the company, by causing it to be delivered at its registered office, by registered post or otherwise, a demand under his hand requiring the company to pay the sum so due and the company has for three weeks thereafter neglected to pay the sum, or to secure or compound for it to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor;

(b) if execution or other process issued on a decree or order of any Court in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part; or

(c) if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that the company is unable to pay its debts, and, in determining whether a company is unable to pay its debts, the Court shall take into account the contingent and prospective liabilities of the company.

(2) The demand referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall be deemed to have been duly given under the hand of the creditor if it is signed by any agent or legal adviser duly authorised on his behalf, or in the case of a firm, if it is signed by any such agent or legal adviser or by any member of the firm.

 

621. OFFENCES AGAINST ACT TO BE COGNIZABLE ONLY ON COMPLAINT BY REGISTRAR, SHAREHOLDER OR GOVERNMENT

(1) No court shall take cognizance of any offence against this Act (other than an offence with respect to which proceedings are instituted under section 545), which is alleged to have been committed by any company or any officer thereof, except on the complaint in writing of the Registrar, or of a shareholder of the company, or of a person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a prosecution by a company of any of its officers:

[Provided further that the court may take cognizance of offence relating to issue and transfer of securities and non-payment of dividend on a complaint in writing by a person authorised by the Securities Exchange Board of India.]

[(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, where the  complainant under sub-section (1) is the Registrar or a person authorised by the Central Government, the personal attendance of the complainant before the Court trying the offence shall not be necessary unless the Court for reasons to be recorded in writing requires his personal attendance at the trial.]

(2) Sub-section (1) shall not apply to any action taken by the liquidator of a company in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed in respect of any of the matters included in Part VII (sections 425 to 560) or in any other provisions of this Act relating to the winding up of the companies.

(3) A liquidator of a company shall not be deemed to be an officer of the company, within the meaning of sub-section (1).

 

624. OFFENCES TO BE NON-COGNIZABLE

Notwithstanding anything in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, every offence against this Act shall be deemed to be non-cognizable within the meaning of the said Code.

 



RIGHTS UNDER THE SCRA AND LISTING AGREEMENT

27. TITLE TO DIVIDENDS.

(1) It shall be lawful for the holder of any security whose name appears on the books of the company issuing the said security to receive and retain any dividend declared by the company in respect thereof for any year, notwithstanding that the said security has already been transferred by him for consideration, unless the transferee who claims the dividend from the transferor has lodged the security and all other documents relating to the transfer which may be required by the company with the company for being registered in his name within fifteen days of the date on which the dividend became due.

Explanation : The period specified in this section shall be extended -

(i) in case of death of the transferee, by the actual period taken by his legal representative to establish his claim to the dividend;

(ii) in case of loss of the transfer deed by theft or any other cause beyond the control of the transferee, by the actual period taken for the replacement thereof; and

(iii) in case of delay in the lodging of any security and other documents relating to the transfer due to causes connected with the post, by the actual period of the delay.


(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall affect -

(a) the right of a company to pay any dividend which has become due to any person whose name is for the time being registered in the books of the company as the holder of the security in respect of which the dividend has become due; or

(b) the right of the transferee of any security to enforce against the transferor or any other person his rights, if any, in relation to the transfer in any case where the company has refused to register the transfer of the security in the name of the transferee.

 

27A. Right to receive income from collective investment scheme

(1)It shall be lawful for the holder of any securities, being units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme, whose name appears on the booms of the collective investment scheme issuing the said security to receive and retain any income in respect of units or other instruments  issued by the collective investment scheme declared by the collective investment scheme in respect thereof for any year, notwithstanding that the said security, being units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme, has already been transferred by him for consideration, unless the transferee who claims the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme from the transfer or has lodged the security and all other documents relating to the transfer which may be required by the collective investment scheme with the collective investment scheme for being registered in his name within fifteen days of the date on which the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the collective investments scheme became due.

Explanation.—The period specified in this section shall be extended—

(i)in case of death of the transferee, by the actual period taken by his legal representative to establish his claim to the income in respect of units or other instrument issued by collective investment scheme;

(ii)   in case of loss of the transfer deed by theft or any other cause beyond the control of the transferee, by the actual period taken for the replacement thereof; and

(iii) in case of delay in the lodging of any security, being units or other instruments issued by the collective investment scheme, and other documents relating to the transfer due to causes connected with the post, by the actual period of the delay.

(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall affect—

(a)  the right of a collective investment scheme to pay any income from units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme which has become due to any person whose name is for the time being registered in the books of the collective investment scheme as the holder of the security being units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme in respect of which the income in respect units or other instruments issued by collective scheme has become due; or

(b)      the right of transferee of any security, being units or other instruments issued by collective investment scheme, to enforce against the transferor or any other person his rights, if any, in relation to the transfer in any case where the company has refused to register the transfer of the security being units or other instruments issued by the collective investment scheme in the name of the transferee.]

 

27B. Right to receive income from mutual fund

(1)     It shall be lawful for the holder of any securities, being units or other instruments issued by any mutual fund, whose name appears on the books of the mutual fund issuing the said security to receive and retain any income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund declared by the mutual fund in respect thereof for any year, notwithstanding that the said security, being units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund, has already been transferred by him for consideration, unless the transferee who claims the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund from the transferor has lodged the security and all other documents relating to the transfer which may be required by the mutual fund with the mutual fund for being registered in his name within fifteen days of the date on which the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund became due.

Explanation.— The period specified in this section shall be extended—

(i)                 in case of death of the transferee, by the actual period taken by his legal representative to establish his claim to the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund;

(ii)                  in case of loss of the transfer deed by theft or any other cause beyond the control of transferee, by the actual period taken for the replacement thereof; and

(iii)                 in case of delay in the lodging of any security, being units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund, and other documents relating to the transfer due to causes connected with the post, by the actual period of the delay.

(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall affect—

(a)     the right of a mutual fund to pay any income from unit or other instruments issued by the mutual fund which has become due to any person whose name is for the time being registered in the books of the mutual fund as the holder of the security being units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund in respect of which the income in respect of units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund has become due; or

(b)     the right of transferee of any security, being units or other instruments issued by the mutual fund, to enforce against the transferor or any other person his right, if any, in relation to the transfer in any case where the mutual fund has refused to register the transfer of the security being units of other instruments issued by the mutual fund in the name of the transferee.]

 

Listing Agreement Clauses

Clause 1 of LA. The Issuer agrees:

a) that letters of allotment will be issued simultaneously and that in the event of its being impossible to issue letters of regret at the same time, a notice to that effect will be inserted in the press so that it will appear on the morning after the letters of allotment have been posted;

b) that letters of right will be issued simultaneously;

c) that letters of allotment, acceptance or rights will be serially numbered, printed on good quality paper and examined and signed by a responsible officer of the Issuer and that whenever possible they will contain the distinctive numbers of the securities to which they relate;

d) that letters of allotment and renounceable letters of right will contain a provision for splitting and that when so required by the NSE the form of renunciation will be printed on the back of or attached to the letters of allotment and letters of right;

e) that letters of allotment and letters of rights will state how the next payment of interest or dividend on the securities will be calculated.

 

Clause 2 of LA. The Issuer will issue, when so required, receipts in such forms as prescribed by the NSE, for all securities deposited with it whether for registration, sub-division, consolidation, renewal, exchange or for other purposes.

 

Clause 3 of LA.  The Issuer agrees:

a) to have on hand at all times a sufficient supply of certificates to meet the demands for transfer, sub-division, consolidation and renewal;

b) to issue certificates or pucca receipts within one month of the date of the expiration of any right to renunciation;

c) to issue certificates within one month of the date of lodgment for transfer, sub-division, consolidation, renewal, exchange or endorsement of calls/allotment monies or to issue within fifteen days of such lodgment for transfer, pucca transfer receipts in denominations corresponding to the market units of trading autographically signed by a responsible official of the Issuer and bearing an endorsement that the transfer has been duly approved by the directors or that no such approval is necessary;

d) to issue without charge balance certificates, within one month, if so required;

e) to issue new certificates in replacement of those which are lost within six weeks of notification of loss and receipt of proper indemnity

 

Clause 6 of LA. The Issuer will, if so required by NSE, certify transfer against letters of allotment, certificates and balance receipts and in that event the Issuer will promptly make on transfers an endorsement to the following effect;

Name of Issuer _____________________ Certificate/Allotment Letter No. _________ for the within mentioned _______________ securities is deposited in the Issuer’s Office against this transfer No.________________________

Signature(s) of Official(s) ______________________        Date _______________

 

Clause 8 of LA. The Issuer agrees that it will not make any charge:

a) for registration of transfers of its share and debentures;

b) for sub-division and consolidation of share and debenture certificates and for sub-division of letters of allotment and split, consolidation, renewal and pucca transfer receipts into  denominations corresponding to the market unit of trading;

c) for sub-division of renounceable letters of rights;       

d) for issue of new certificates in replacement of those which are old, decrepit or worn out, or  where the cages on the reverse of recording transfers have been fully utilised;

e) for registration of any power of attorney, probate, letters of administration or similar other documents.

 

Clause 12 of LA. On lodgment of the proper documents, the Issuer agrees that it will register transfers of its securities in the name of the transferee except:

a) when the transferee is, in exceptional circumstances, not approved by the Directors in accordance with the provisions contained in the Articles of Association of the Issuer, in which event the Managing Director of NSE will be taken into confidence, when so required, as to the reasons for such rejection;

b) When any statutory prohibition or any attachment or prohibitory order of a competent authority restraints the Issuer from transferring the securities out of the name of the transferor.

c) when the transferor objects to the transfer provided he serves on the Issuer within a reasonable time a prohibitory order of a Court of competent jurisdiction

 

Clause 32 of LA. The Issuer will supply a copy of the complete and full Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account and the Directors’ Report to each shareholder and upon application to any member of NSE.

However, the company may supply single copy of complete and full Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account and Directors’ Report to shareholders residing in one household (i.e. having same address in the Books of the Company/Registrars/Share transfer agents). Provided that, the company on receipt of request shall supply the complete and full Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account and Directors’ report also to any shareholder residing in such household. Further, the company will supply abridged Balance Sheet to all the shareholders in the same household.

The issuer will also give cash flow statement along with the Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account. The Cash Flow Statement will be prepared in accordance with the Accounting Standard on Cash Flow Statement (AS-3) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, and the Cash Flow Statement shall be presented only under the Indirect Method as given in AS-3. The statement shall be issued under the authority of the Board and shall be signed on behalf of the Board of Directors in the manner provided for the authentication of Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account in Section 215 of the Companies Act, 1956.

a.      Consolidated Financial Statement:

·         Companies shall be mandatory required to publish Consolidated Financial Statements in the annual report in addition to the individual financial statements.

·         Audit of Consolidated Financial Statements by the statutory auditors of the company and the filing of Consolidated Financial Statements audited by the statutory auditors of the company with the stock exchanges shall be mandatory.

b.      Related Party Disclosures :

·         Companies shall be required to make disclosures in compliance with the Accounting Standard on "Related Party Disclosures" in the annual reports.

The Issuer agrees to make the following disclosure in the Annual Report:

i) In case the shares are delisted, it shall disclose the fact of delisting, together with reasons thereof in its Directors Report

ii) In case the securities are suspended from trading, the Directors Report should explain the reason thereof

iii) The name and address of each stock exchange at which the issuer's securities are listed and also confirm that Annual Listing Fee has been paid to each of the exchange.

iv)   The following disclosure requirements are prescribed for the listed companies in the annual accounts of the company.

S.No In the accounts of Disclosures of amounts at the year end and the maximum amount of loans/ advances/ investments outstanding during the year.
1.

Parent

·         Loans and advances in the nature of loans to subsidiaries by name and amount.

·         Loans and advances in the nature of loans to associates by name and amount

·         Loans and advances in the nature of loans where there is

(i)         no repayment schedule or repayment  

 beyond seven years or

    (ii)     no interest or interest below section 372A of Companies Act by name and amount.

·         Loans and advances in the nature of loans to firms/companies in which directors are interested by name and amount

2

Subsidiary

Same disclosures as applicable to the parent company in the accounts of subsidiary company.

3

Parent

Investments by the loanee in the shares of parent company and subsidiary company, when the company has made a loan or advance in the nature of loan.

 

Note : 1) For the purpose of the above disclosures the terms "parent" and "subsidiary" shall have the same meaning as defined in the Accounting Standard on Consolidated Financial Statement (AS21) issued by ICAI.

2) For the purpose of the above disclosures the terms ‘Associate’ and ‘Related Party’ shall have the same meaning as defined in the Accounting Standard on "Related Party Disclosures (AS 18)" issued by ICAI

3) For the purpose of above disclosures directors interest shall have the same meaning as given in Sec 299 of Companies Act.

The above disclosures shall be applicable to all listed companies except for listed banks.

Issuers who change their name suggesting any new line of business (including software business) shall disclose the turnover and income etc from such new activities separately in the annual results.

Companies, which have changed their names after January 1, 1998 or change, the name hereafter shall make such disclosures and shall continue to make these disclosures for a period of 3 years from the date of change in the name.

 

Frequent change of names by listed companies

All listed companies which decide to change their names shall be required to comply with the following conditions:

1.         A time period of at least 1 year should have elapsed from the last name change.

2.         At least 50% of its total revenue in the preceding 1 year period should have been accounted for by the new activity suggested by the new name.

The new name along with the old name shall be disclosed through the web sites of the respective stock exchange/s where the company is listed and also through the EDIFAR web site for a continuous period of one year, from the date of the last name change.

 

RIGHTS UNDER RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT.

45QA. Power of Company Law Board to order repayment of deposit

(1) Every deposit accepted by a non-banking financial company, unless renewed, shall be repaid in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit.

(2) Where a non-banking financial company has failed to repay any deposit or part thereof in accordance with the terms and conditions of such deposit, the Company Law Board constituted under section 10E of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), may, if it is satisfied, either on its own motion or on an application of the depositor, that it is necessary so to do to safeguard the interests of the company, the depositors or in the public interest, direct, by order, the non-banking financial company to make repayment of such deposit or part thereof forthwith or within such time and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order:

PROVIDED that the Company Law Board may, before making any order under this sub-section, give a reasonable opportunity of being heard to the non-banking financial company and the other persons interested in the matter.